The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz "TITO" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. In 2015, Serbia and Kosovo reached four additional agreements within the EU-led Brussels Dialogue framework. These included agreements on the Community of Serb-Majority Municipalities; telecommunications; energy production and distribution; and freedom of movement. President Aleksandar VUCIC has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2025. Under his leadership as prime minister, in 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession.



44.0° N, 21. 0° E
Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary


77,474 sq km
77,474 sq km
0 sq km

land boundaries

2,322 km


0 km


in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)


extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills


442 m
lowest point
Danube and Timok Rivers
35 m
highest point
2,169 m

natural resources

  • oil
  • gas
  • coal
  • iron ore
  • copper
  • zinc
  • antimony
  • chromite
  • gold
  • silver
  • magnesium
  • pyrite
  • limestone
  • marble
  • salt
  • arable land

land use

arable land
37.7 %
permanent crops
3.4 %
permanent pasture
16.8 %
31.6 %
10.5 %

population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations



  • 7,012,165
  • 105
    global rank


  • Serb(s)
  • Serbian

ethnic groups

83.3 %
3.5 %
2.1 %
2 %
5.7 %
undeclared or unknown
3.4 %


  • Serbian
  • Hungarian
  • Bosnian
  • Romani
  • other
  • undeclared or unknown


84.6 %
5 %
3.1 %
1 %
1.1 %
0.8 %
undeclared or unknown
4.5 %

birth rate

  • 8.8
    per 1,000 population
  • 210
    global rank

death rate

  • 13.5
    per 1,000 population
  • 6
    global rank

urban population

56.4 %

major urban areas

  • Belgrade
    pop. 1,398,000

life expectancy

  • 76.3
    total population
  • 99
    global rank

adult obesity rate

  • 21.5%
    percent of adults
  • 88
    global rank


country name


  • Republic of Serbia
    long form
  • Serbia
    short form


  • Republika Srbija
    long form
  • Srbija
    short form

government type

parliamentary republic


Belgrade (Beograd)
44.50 N, 20.30 E


national holidays

  • National Day
    15 February

legal system

civil law system

age of suffrage


flag description

three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels (fire strikers) or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms

national colors

  • red
  • blue
  • white

national anthem

"Boze pravde" (God of Justice)



Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investment. MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of international economic sanctions, civil war, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy worse off than it was in 1990. In 2015, Serbia’s GDP was 27.5% below where it was in 1989. After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the IMF in December 2000 and rejoined the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Serbia has made progress in trade liberalization and enterprise restructuring and privatization, but many large enterprises - including the power utilities, telecommunications company, natural gas company, and others - remain state-owned. Serbia has made some progress towards EU membership, gaining candidate status in March 2012. In January 2014, Serbia's EU accession talks officially opened and, as of December 2017, Serbia had opened 12 negotiating chapters including one on foreign trade. Serbia's negotiations with the WTO are advanced, with the country's complete ban on the trade and cultivation of agricultural biotechnology products representing the primary remaining obstacle to accession. Serbia maintains a three-year Stand-by Arrangement with the IMF worth approximately $1.3 billion that is scheduled to end in February 2018. The government has shown progress implementing economic reforms, such as fiscal consolidation, privatization, and reducing public spending. Unemployment in Serbia, while relatively low (16% in 2017) compared with its Balkan neighbors, remains significantly above the European average. Serbia is slowly implementing structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity. Serbia reduced its budget deficit to 1.7% of GDP and its public debt to 71% of GDP in 2017. Public debt had more than doubled between 2008 and 2015. Serbia's concerns about inflation and exchange-rate stability preclude the use of expansionary monetary policy. Major economic challenges ahead include: stagnant household incomes; the need for private sector job creation; structural reforms of state-owned companies; strategic public sector reforms; and the need for new foreign direct investment. Other serious longer-term challenges include an inefficient judicial system, high levels of corruption, and an aging population. Factors favorable to Serbia's economic growth include the economic reforms it is undergoing as part of its EU accession process and IMF agreement, its strategic location, a relatively inexpensive and skilled labor force, and free trade agreements with the EU, Russia, Turkey, and countries that are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement.


105,700,000,000 USD

agriculture products

  • wheat
  • maize
  • sunflower
  • sugar beets
  • grapes
  • wine
  • fruits
  • raspberries
  • apples
  • sour cherries
  • vegetables
  • tomatoes
  • peppers
  • potatoes
  • beef
  • pork
  • meat products
  • milk
  • dairy products

poverty level



  • 17,690,000,000
    revenue (USD)
  • 17,590,000,000
    expenditures (USD)



    fixed lines

  • 2,574,691
    total subscriptions
  • 52
    global rank

    mobile cellular

  • 8,431,365
    total subscriptions
  • 97
    global rank


country code


  • 5,192,501
  • 73.36
    % of population
  • 81
    global rank


electricity access



air transport

    national system

  • 2
    registered air carriers
  • 2,424,886
    annual passenger traffic


  • 26
  • 10


3,809 km
total length


44,248 km
total length


587 km
total length



expenditures here

service age