Korea, North
An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War. Five years later, Japan formally annexed the entire peninsula. Following World War II, Korea was split with the northern half coming under Soviet-sponsored communist control. After failing in the Korean War (1950-53) to conquer the US-backed Republic of Korea (ROK) in the southern portion by force, North Korea (DPRK), under its founder President KIM Il Sung, adopted a policy of ostensible diplomatic and economic "self-reliance" as a check against outside influence. The DPRK demonized the US as the ultimate threat to its social system through state-funded propaganda, and molded political, economic, and military policies around the core ideological objective of eventual unification of Korea under Pyongyang's control. KIM Il Sung's son, KIM Jong Il, was officially designated as his father's successor in 1980, assuming a growing political and managerial role until the elder KIM's death in 1994. Under KIM Jong Il's rein, the DPRK continued developing nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. KIM Jong Un was publicly unveiled as his father's successor in 2010. Following KIM Jong Il's death in 2011, KIM Jong Un quickly assumed power and has since occupied the regime's highest political and military posts. After decades of economic mismanagement and resource misallocation, the DPRK since the mid-1990s has faced chronic food shortages. In recent years, the North's domestic agricultural production has increased, but still falls far short of producing sufficient food to provide for its entire population. The DPRK began to ease restrictions to allow semi-private markets, starting in 2002, but has made few other efforts to meet its goal of improving the overall standard of living. North Korea's history of regional military provocations; proliferation of military-related items; long-range missile development; WMD programs including tests of nuclear devices in 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016, and 2017; and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community and have limited the DPRK's international engagement, particularly economically. In 2013, the DPRK declared a policy of simultaneous development of its nuclear weapons program and economy. In late 2017, KIM Jong Un declared the North's nuclear weapons development complete. In 2018, KIM announced a pivot towards diplomacy, including a re-prioritization of economic development, a pause in missile testing beginning in late 2017, and a refrain from anti-US rhetoric starting in June 2018. Since 2018, KIM has participated in four meetings with Chinese President XI Jinping, three with ROK President MOON Jae-in, and three with US President TRUMP. Since July 2019, North Korea has restarted its short-range missile tests and issued statements condemning the US.



40.0° N, 127. 0° E
Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea


120,538 sq km
120,408 sq km
130 sq km

land boundaries

1,607 km


2,495 km


temperate, with rainfall concentrated in summer; long, bitter winters


mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; wide coastal plains in west, discontinuous in east


600 m
lowest point
Sea of Japan
0 m
highest point
2,744 m

natural resources

  • coal
  • iron ore
  • limestone
  • magnesite
  • graphite
  • copper
  • zinc
  • lead
  • precious metals
  • hydropower

land use

arable land
19.5 %
permanent crops
1.9 %
permanent pasture
0.4 %
46 %
32.2 %

population distribution

population concentrated in the plains and lowlands; least populated regions are the mountainous provinces adjacent to the Chinese border; largest concentrations are in the western provinces, particularly the municipal district of Pyongyang, and around Hungnam and Wonsan in the east



  • 25,643,466
  • 54
    global rank


  • Korean(s)
  • Korean

ethnic groups

  • racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese


  • Korean


  • traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist
  • some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo

birth rate

  • 14.5
    per 1,000 population
  • 128
    global rank

death rate

  • 9.4
    per 1,000 population
  • 48
    global rank

urban population

62.4 %

major urban areas

  • Pyongyang
    pop. 3,084,000

life expectancy

  • 71.6
    total population
  • 161
    global rank

adult obesity rate

  • 6.8%
    percent of adults
  • 163
    global rank


country name


  • Democratic People's Republic of Korea
    long form
  • North Korea
    short form


  • Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
    long form
  • Choson
    short form

government type

dictatorship, single-party state; official state ideology of "Juche" or "national self-reliance"


39.1 N, 125.45 E


national holidays

  • Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
    9 September

legal system

civil law system based on the Prussian model; system influenced by Japanese traditions and Communist legal theory

age of suffrage


flag description

three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star; the broad red band symbolizes revolutionary traditions; the narrow white bands stand for purity, strength, and dignity; the blue bands signify sovereignty, peace, and friendship; the red star represents socialism

national colors

  • red
  • white
  • blue

national anthem

"Aegukka" (Patriotic Song)



North Korea, one of the world's most centrally directed and least open economies, faces chronic economic problems. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment, shortages of spare parts, and poor maintenance. Large-scale military spending and development of its ballistic missile and nuclear program severely draws off resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Industrial and power outputs have stagnated for years at a fraction of pre-1990 levels. Frequent weather-related crop failures aggravated chronic food shortages caused by on-going systemic problems, including a lack of arable land, collective farming practices, poor soil quality, insufficient fertilization, and persistent shortages of tractors and fuel. The mid 1990s through mid-2000s were marked by severe famine and widespread starvation. Significant food aid was provided by the international community through 2009. Since that time, food assistance has declined significantly. In the last few years, domestic corn and rice production has improved, although domestic production does not fully satisfy demand. A large portion of the population continues to suffer from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions. Since 2002, the government has allowed semi-private markets to begin selling a wider range of goods, allowing North Koreans to partially make up for diminished public distribution system rations. It also implemented changes in the management process of communal farms in an effort to boost agricultural output. In December 2009, North Korea carried out a redenomination of its currency, capping the amount of North Korean won that could be exchanged for the new notes, and limiting the exchange to a one-week window. A concurrent crackdown on markets and foreign currency use yielded severe shortages and inflation, forcing Pyongyang to ease the restrictions by February 2010. In response to the sinking of the South Korean warship Cheonan and the shelling of Yeonpyeong Island in 2010, South Korea’s government cut off most aid, trade, and bilateral cooperation activities. In February 2016, South Korea ceased its remaining bilateral economic activity by closing the Kaesong Industrial Complex in response to North Korea’s fourth nuclear test a month earlier. This nuclear test and another in September 2016 resulted in two United Nations Security Council Resolutions that targeted North Korea’s foreign currency earnings, particularly coal and other mineral exports. Throughout 2017, North Korea’s continued nuclear and missile tests led to a tightening of UN sanctions, resulting in full sectoral bans on DPRK exports and drastically limited key imports. Over the last decade, China has been North Korea’s primary trading partner. The North Korean Government continues to stress its goal of improving the overall standard of living, but has taken few steps to make that goal a reality for its populace. In 2016, the regime used two mass mobilizations — one totaling 70 days and another 200 days — to spur the population to increase production and complete construction projects quickly. The regime released a five-year economic development strategy in May 2016 that outlined plans for promoting growth across sectors. Firm political control remains the government’s overriding concern, which likely will inhibit formal changes to North Korea’s current economic system.


40,000,000,000 USD

agriculture products

  • rice
  • corn
  • potatoes
  • wheat
  • soybeans
  • pulses
  • beef
  • pork
  • eggs
  • fruit
  • nuts


  • 3,200,000,000
    revenue (USD)
  • 3,300,000,000
    expenditures (USD)



    fixed lines

  • 1,180,000
    total subscriptions
  • 72
    global rank

    mobile cellular

  • 3,606,000
    total subscriptions
  • 134
    global rank

broadcast media

no independent media; radios and TVs are pre-tuned to government stations; 4 government-owned TV stations; the Korean Workers' Party owns and operates the Korean Central Broadcasting Station, and the state-run Voice of Korea operates an external broadcast service; the government prohibits listening to and jams foreign broadcasts (2019)


electricity access



air transport

    national system

  • 1
    registered air carriers
  • 223,418
    annual passenger traffic


  • 82
  • 39


7,435 km
total length


25,554 km
total length


2,250 km
total length


service age